Impact of the Macronutrient Composition of a Nutritional Supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Older Men: A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial

Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon

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23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CONTEXT: An impaired muscle protein synthetic response to feeding likely contributes to muscle loss with aging. There are few data available on the effect of the macronutrient composition of clinical supplements on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response in older subjects.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the macronutrient composition of a nutritional supplement on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response in older men.

METHODS: A total of 45 nonsarcopenic older men (aged 69 ± 1 y; body mass index 25.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to ingest 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein with carbohydrate (9 g) and fat (3 g) (Pro-En), an isonitrogenous amount of 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein without carbohydrate and fat (Pro), or an isocaloric mixture (628 kJ) containing carbohydrate and fat only (En). Stable isotope tracer methodology was applied to assess the basal as well as the postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in the three groups.

RESULTS: Ingestion of protein in the Pro-En and Pro groups significantly increased muscle protein synthesis rates when compared with the basal rates (from 0.032 ± 0.003%/h to 0.05%/h 3 ± 0.004%/h and 0.040%/h ± 0.003%/h to 0.049%/h ± 0.003%/h, respectively; P < .05), whereas ingestion of carbohydrate and fat did not increase muscle protein synthesis rates in the En group (from 0.039%/h ± 0.004%/h to 0.040%/h ± 0.003%/h; P = .60). Despite the greater postprandial rise in circulating insulin concentration in the Pro-En group, no significant differences were observed in postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates between the Pro-En and Pro groups (P = .32). Postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates were higher in the Pro-En vs En group (P = .01).

CONCLUSION: The ingestion of a nutritional supplement containing 21 g of leucine-enriched whey protein significantly raises muscle protein synthesis rates in nonsarcopenic older men, but coingestion of carbohydrate and fat does not modulate the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion in older men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4124-4132
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume100
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Food
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Leucine
  • Male
  • Motor Activity
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Postprandial Period
  • Whey Proteins

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