In vitro antimycobacterial activity of medicinal plants Lantana camara, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, and Zanthoxylum leprieurii

Naasson Tuyiringire, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Deusdedit Tusubira, Jean-Pierre Munyampundu, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Yvan Vander Heyden

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Abstract

Background: Imperative need exists to search for new anti-TB drugs that are safer, and more effective against drug-resistant strains. Medicinal plants have been the source of active ingredients for drug development. However, the slow growth and biosafety level requirements of M. tuberculosis culture are considerable challenges. M. smegmatis can be used as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis. In the current study, preliminary phytochemical screening and antimycobacterial activity evaluation of crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants against M. smegmatis, and two M. tuberculosis strains, were conducted.
Materials and Methods: Crude methanolic extracts, obtained from the leaves of L. camara, roots of C. sanguinolenta, and stem barks of Z. leprieurii, were tested for antimycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis (mc2155), pansensitive (H37Rv), and rifampicin-resistant (TMC-331) M. tuberculosis, using visual Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) on 96 well plates. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening tests were performed using standard chemical methods. Results: The three methanolic extracts inhibited mycobacterial growth in vitro. They were more active against rifampicin-resistant strain with MICs of 176, 97, and 45 µg/mL for L. camara, C. sanguinolenta, and Z. leprieurii
extracts, respectively. The lowest activity was observed against M. smegmatis with MICs of 574, 325, and 520 µg/mL, respectively. Against H37Rv, activity was intermediate to those of TMC-331 and mc2155. However, L. camara extract showed the same activity against H37Rv and M. smegmatis. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. Conclusions: Leaves of L. camara, roots of C. sanguinolenta, and stem barks of Z. leprieurii exhibit antimycobacterial
activity against M. smegmatis, pan-sensitive, and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis. This offers the possibilities for novel therapeutic opportunities against TB including multidrug-resistant TB. Further investigations on safety
and mechanisms of action are required. These studies could be done using M. smegmatis as a surrogate for the highly pathogenic M. tuberculosis
Original languageEnglish
Article number100307
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
Volume27
Early online date22 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

2405-5794/© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Medicinal plants
  • Minimum inhibitory concentration
  • In vitro activity
  • L. camara
  • C. sanguinolenta
  • Z. leprieurii
  • M. tuberculosis
  • M. smegmatis
  • Resazurin microtiter assay

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