Influence of Anthropometry, Age, Sex, and Activity Level on the Hand Reach Star Excursion Balance Test

Ola Eriksrud, Peter Federolf, Jan Cabri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


The influence of anthropometric measurements, age, sex, and activity level have been found to influence tests of dynamic postural control such as the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The hand reach star excursion balance test (HSEBT) measures different aspects of dynamic postural control. The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of these factors on the HSEBT. A convenience sample of 223 subjects performed four horizontal (L45, R45, L135, and R135) and two rotational (LROT and RROT) reaches. The influence of anthropometric measurements (height, arm length, leg length, and wingspan) on reach measurements were assessed using stepwise multiple linear regression. Influence of age (young: <20 years; adult: >20 years), sex (male; female) and activity level (athletes; recreational) on reach measurements were analyzed using independent samples t-test (p < 0.05) and interpreted using effect size (Cohens d) and established values of minimal detectable change (MDC). Wingspan explained a significant portion of the variance of only R45 (34.6%) and L45 (11.7%) reach measurements and normalized (percentage of wingspan). A medium effect of age, sex, and activity level was observed for normalized L45 and R45 reaches (d = 0.50-72). Group differences greater than MDC values and a medium effect for age (d = 0.55) and activity level (d = 0.75) were observed for the R135 reach. L45 and R45 reaches should be normalized to wingspan, but not the other reaches. Between individual or group comparisons should consider age, activity level and sex as potential covariates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number756
Pages (from-to)756
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberAPR
Publication statusPublished - 2019


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