Injectable candidate sealants for fetal membrane repair: bonding and toxicity in vitro

Grozdana Bilic, Carrie Brubaker, Phillip B Messersmith, Ajit S Mallik, Thomas M Quinn, Claudia Haller, Elisa Done, Leonardo Gucciardo, Steffen M Zeisberger, Roland Zimmermann, Jan Deprest, Andreas H Zisch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test injectable surgical sealants that are biocompatible with fetal membranes and that are to be used eventually for the closure of iatrogenic membrane defects.

STUDY DESIGN: Dermabond (Ethicon Inc, Norderstedt, Germany), Histoacryl (B. Braun GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany), and Tissucol (Baxter AG, Volketwil, Switzerland) fibrin glue, and 3 types of in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer hydrogels were tested for acute toxicity on direct contact with fetal membranes for 24 hours. For the determination of elution toxicity, extracts of sealants were incubated on amnion cell cultures for 72 hours. Bonding and toxicity was assessed through morphologic and/or biochemical analysis.

RESULTS: Extracts of all adhesives were nontoxic for cultured cells. However, only Tissucol and 1 type of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, which is a mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive, showed efficient, nondisruptive, nontoxic bonding to fetal membranes. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive that was applied over membrane defects that were created with a 3.5-mm trocar accomplished leak-proof closure that withstood membrane stretch in an in vitro model.

CONCLUSION: A synthetic hydrogel-type tissue adhesive that merits further evaluation in vivo emerged as a potential sealing modality for iatrogenic membrane defects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85.e1-85.e9
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010


  • Amnion
  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Enbucrilate
  • Female
  • Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
  • Fetoscopy
  • Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Materials Testing
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Pregnancy
  • Tissue Adhesives


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