Licensing music works and transaction costs in Europe. Final report

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


Establishing and running online music services is a complex task, raising both technical and legal difficulties. This is particularly the case in Europe, where complex rights licensing structures hinder the development of the market and the launch of new innovative online services. Compared to the US, Europe is lagging behind in terms of digital music revenue. Furthermore, the development of the market is fairly disparate among different countries in the European Union.
This study aims to identify and analyse transaction costs in music licensing. It examines the online music markets and outlines the licensing processes faced by online services. It offers a qualitative and quantitative analysis of transaction costs in the acquisition of the relevant rights by online music services. The study also suggests different ways of decreasing transaction costs.
The research focuses on three countries (the UK, Spain and the Czech Republic) and builds on data collected through a survey with online music service providers available in the three countries as well as interviews with relevant stakeholders in the field of music licensing.
Original languageEnglish
Commissioning bodyAlphabet Inc.
Number of pages72
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012

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