Lithium Ion Batteries - Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

Alexandros Nikolian, Yousef Firouz, Rahul Gopalakrishnan, Jean-Marc Timmermans, Noshin Omar, Peter Van Den Bossche, Joris De Hoog

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs) were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests), ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model), state of charge (SoC) estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering) and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT) and world harmonized light vehicle profiles) have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL) and aged (95%, 90% state of health) ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro), polarization resistance (Rp), activation resistance (Rp2) and time constants (τ) is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C). The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results) is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed
Original languageEnglish
Article numberenergies-121112
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
VolumeEnergy Storage Systems for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Vehicle to Power Grid Integration
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2016


  • Lithium Ion
  • Nickel Manganese Cobalt
  • Equivalent Circuit Model
  • Validation Profile
  • Modelling
  • Begin of Life parameters
  • Cell Characterization
  • Dynamic Discharge Pulse Test
  • World Harmonized Light Vehicle


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