Measuring Early Germ-Layer Specification Bias in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Alexander Keller, Nuša Krivec, Christina Markouli, Claudia Spits

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Human pluripotent stem cells have a wide variety of potential applications, ranging from clinical translation to in vitro disease modeling. However, there is significant variation in the potential of individual cell lines to differentiate towards each of the three germ layers as a result of (epi)genetic background, culture conditions, and other factors. We describe here in detail a methodology to evaluate this bias using short directed differentiation towards neuroectoderm, mesendoderm, and definitive endoderm in combination with quantification by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescent stains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-72
Number of pages16
Journal Methods in Molecular Biology: Experimental Cholestasis Research
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Cell Differentiation
  • Endoderm
  • Germ Layers
  • Humans
  • Neural Plate
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells


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