Cancer is known for its cellular changes contributing to tumour growth and cell proliferation. As part of these changes, metabolic rearrangements are identified in several cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), which is a condition whereby malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow (BM). These metabolic changes consist of generation, inhibition and accumulation of metabolites and metabolic shifts in MM cells. Changes in the BM micro-environment could be the reason for such adjustments. Enhancement of glycolysis and glutaminolysis is found in MM cells compared to healthy cells. Metabolites and enzymes can be upregulated or downregulated and play a crucial role in drug resistance. Therefore, this review will focus on changes in glucose and glutamine metabolism linked with the emergence of drug resistance. Moreover, metabolites do not only affect other metabolic components to benefit cancer development; they also interfere with transcription factors involved in proliferation and apoptotic regulation.
- Journal Article