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This paper models the behavior of an autonomous shuttle for last-mile application scenarios. To simulate the energy consumption, the real-world dynamical and electrical data of an autonomous pilot shuttle tested in the Brubels Capital Region are measured. Simulation results show 94.5-96.4% accuracy after validation. To simulate the speed profile of future scenarios, the trajectory is divided into eight sections, each with particular characteristics regarding the type of the road and, thus, different maximum operational speeds. The shuttle's speed profile is reconstructed using the Gipps model based on the segmentation. As the speed profile simulation results match the shuttle's real-world behavior, the model is applied for speed profile generation of future scenarios. Last-mile scenarios' evaluation is accomplished using the presented model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3379-3386
Number of pages8
JournalTransportation Research Procedia
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2023
EventTRA 2022 - Congressos de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 14 Nov 202217 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)


  • Autonomous shuttle
  • energy consumption
  • scenario assessment


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