Modulation of TE Propagation Modes in Rectangular Metal Waveguide with Integrated Graphene Structure in the Sub-Terahertz Frequency Range

Gennady Shkerdin, Guoqiang He, Hameda Imhana Alkorre, Johan Stiens

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Propagation of TE modes in a rectangular metal waveguide with an integrated structure of finite length containing a graphene monolayer was studied by modal decomposition method. The modal decomposition method generates a number of linear algebraic equations related to waveguide modes taken into account. The system of linear algebraic equations for the amplitudes of all modes was derived taking into account propagating as well as a number of local evanescent modes. Truncation errors in function of the number of modes taken were quantified by using the discontinuities of the boundary conditions for transverse electric and magnetic fields components at the interface of the discontinuities of the structure. Transmitted and reflected TE01 modes amplitudes were calculated versus graphene layer length, its position inside the waveguide cavity and graphene electrons chemical potential. It was shown that the symmetrical positioning of the graphene layer inside the waveguide cavity is the most suitable to achieve the largest amplitude modulation, whereas an asymmetrical positioning is suitable to achieve large phase modulation of the transmitted mode. It was shown that the phase modulation increases with transmission coefficient modulation increase and decreases with transmission coefficient increase. It was found that the phase modulation increases firstly almost proportionally with the graphene layer length for relatively short structures; however, after passing through a maximum, the phase modulation becomes almost constant and hence only weakly dependent on the graphene layer length. Typical phase modulation values turn out to be about 15-20 degrees for minimal transmission coefficient about 0.6-0.4, however, the phase modulation reaches the value about 45 degrees if transmission coefficient modulation equals to 50%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number015606
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Optics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016


  • amplitude modulation
  • phase modulation
  • sub-THz frequency
  • graphene
  • rectangular waveguide
  • modal decomposition method


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