Monte-carlo simulation of the effective lunar aperture for detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

Godwin Komla Krampah, Stijn Buitink, Arthur Corstanje, Mitja Desmet, Tim Huege, Hershal Pandya, Justin D. Bray, H. Falcke, Brian M. Hare, V. B. Jhansi, N. Karastathis, K. Mulrey, Jörg Hörandel , Pragati Mitra, Anna Nelles, Olaf Scholten, S. ter Veen, S. Thoudam, Tobias Winchen

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Abstract

Ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos interacting with the Moon’s regolith generate particle showers that
emit Askaryan radiation. This radiation can be observed from
the Earth using ground-based radio telescopes like LOFAR.
We simulate the effective detection aperture for UHE neutrinos hitting the Moon. Under the same assumptions, results
from this work are in good agreement with previous analytic
parameterizations and Monte Carlo codes. The dependence
of the effective detection aperture on the observing parameters, such as observing frequency and minimum detection
threshold, and lunar characteristics like surface topography
have been studied. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we find
that the detectable neutrino energy threshold is lowered when
we include a realistic treatment of the inelasticity, transmission coefficient, and surface roughness. Lunar surface roughness at large scales enhances the total aperture for higher
observation frequencies (ν ≥ 1 GHz) but has no significant
effect on the LOFAR aperture. However, roughness at scales
small compared to the wavelength reduces the aperture at all
frequencies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1146
Number of pages20
JournalEuropean Physical Journal C - Particles & Fields
Volume83
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No 640130). BMH is supported by ERC Grant agreement No. 101041097; AN and KT acknowledge the Verbundforschung of the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). NK acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – Projektnummer 445154105. MD is supported by the Flemish Foundation for Scientific Research (FWO-AL991). ST acknowledges funding from the Abu Dhabi Award for Research Excellence (AARE19-224). LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has facilities in several countries that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources), and that are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope foundation under a joint scientific policy.

Funding Information:
The project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No 640130). BMH is supported by ERC Grant agreement No. 101041097; AN and KT acknowledge the Verbundforschung of the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). NK acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – Projektnummer 445154105. MD is supported by the Flemish Foundation for Scientific Research (FWO-AL991). ST acknowledges funding from the Abu Dhabi Award for Research Excellence (AARE19-224). LOFAR, the Low-Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has facilities in several countries that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources), and that are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope foundation under a joint scientific policy.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

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