Germline mutations in the major melanoma susceptibility gene CDKN2A explain genetic predisposition in only 10-40% of melanoma-prone families. In our study we comprehensively characterized 488 melanoma cases from 451 non-CDKN2A/CDK4 families for mutations in 30 established and candidate melanoma susceptibility genes using a custom-designed targeted gene panel approach. We identified (likely) pathogenic variants in established melanoma susceptibility genes in 18 families (n = 3 BAP1, n = 15 MITF p.E318K; diagnostic yield 4.0%). Among the three identified BAP1-families, there were no reported diagnoses of uveal melanoma or malignant mesothelioma. We additionally identified two potentially deleterious missense variants in the telomere maintenance genes ACD and TERF2IP, but none in the POT1 gene. MC1R risk variants were strongly enriched in our familial melanoma cohort compared to healthy controls (R variants: OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.88-4.68, p < 0.001). Several variants of interest were also identified in candidate melanoma susceptibility genes, in particular rare (pathogenic) variants in the albinism gene OCA2 were repeatedly found. We conclude that multigene panel testing for familial melanoma is appropriate considering the additional 4% diagnostic yield in non-CDKN2A/CDK4 families. Our study shows that BAP1 and MITF are important genes to be included in such a diagnostic test.
Bibliographical note© 2018 The Authors. International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.
- candidate susceptibility genes
- familial melanoma
- gene panel sequencing
- genetic susceptibility
- high-penetrance genes