Karen Francois, Rik Pinxten

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper


This paper starts from two statements based on a literature review. The first one concerns the learning process and states that learning is situated and socioculturally contextualized. Learning happens in the space of the background and the foreground of the learner in his or her particular environment of experience. This statement is based on the Vygotsky and the Cultural psychology approach (Cole, 1996) and on the work of Vithal & Skovsmose (1997). The second statement concerns the deficient theory of the learning process (instead of the deficiently of the learner). Based on the international comparative research on mathematical skills we claim that the drop out of school of many groups of children (OECD, 2010) has to do with the insufficient learning system at school that fail to fit with the daily background knowledge of the children.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Eight Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME 8)
EditorsB. Ubuz, C. Haser, M.A. Mariotti
Place of PublicationAnkara
PublisherMiddle East Technical University
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-975-429-315-9
Publication statusPublished - 2013
EventEighth Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education (CERME 8) - Manavgat-Side, , Antalya, Turkey
Duration: 6 Feb 201310 Feb 2013


ConferenceEighth Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education (CERME 8)
Abbreviated titleCERME 8


  • Mathematics
  • Education
  • Ethnomathematics


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