No One-Size Fits All! Eight profiles of digital inequalities for customized inclusion strategies

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6 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a conceptual model that explores the extent to which various (non)-users can be subjected to mechanisms of inclusion or exclusion. The model consists of eight profiles of digital inequalities, ranging from deep exclusion to deep inclusion, and is based upon a combination of five key indicators at the social level (income, education, social participation, agency, wellbeing) and eight key indicators at the digital level (access, attitudes, digital skills, soft skills, media richness of the environment, autonomy of use, user practices and social support). This conceptual model, by going further than socio-demographics, a) allows the formulation of an alternative lens through which to look at mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion; b) brings a significant contribution to existing research by highlighting the co-action of social and digital indicators in mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Pages (from-to)279-310
Number of pages32
JournalNew Media & Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.

Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • digital inequalities
  • digital inclusion
  • digital exclusion
  • digital divide
  • social support
  • social inclusion
  • social exclusion
  • vulnerability
  • customised inclusion
  • profiles


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