No Solid Empirical Evidence for the SOLID (Serial Order Learning Impairment) Hypothesis of Dyslexia.

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27 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports on 2 studies that attempted to replicate the findings of a study by Szmalec, Loncke, Page, and Duyck (2011) on Hebb repetition learning in dyslexic individuals, from which these authors concluded that dyslexics suffer from a deficit in long-term learning of serial order information. In 2 experiments, 1 on adolescents (N = 59) and 1 on children (N = 57), no empirical evidence was obtained for impaired Hebb learning in dyslexics, whether the same data-analytical procedure as Szmalec et al. was used or whether some methodological improvements were applied (e.g., using a more sensitive index of Hebb learning, and equating groups on filler performance with state trace analysis). In an additional state trace analysis, aggregating data over participants, it was shown that performance on the repeated Hebb sequences was almost perfectly predictable from performance on the nonrepeated sequences (fillers). The implications of these findings are outlined for the current discussion on the mechanisms for encoding immediate serial recall and long-term sequence learning and for computational models attempting to simulate these mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-669
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition
Issue number3
Early online date13 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished - May 2015


  • Hebb Learning
  • serial order learning
  • dyslexia
  • reading development
  • memory


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