NR5A1 c.991-1G > C splice-site variant causes familial 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis with incomplete penetrance

Maris Laan, Laura Kasak, Kęstutis Timinskas, Marina Grigorova, Česlovas Venclovas, Alexandre Renaux, Tom Lenaerts, Margus Punab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify the genetic basis of partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) in a non-consanguineous family from Estonia.

PATIENTS: Cousins P (proband) 1 (12 years; 46,XY) and P2 (18 years; 46,XY) presented bilateral cryptorchidism, severe penoscrotal hypospadias, low bitesticular volume and azoospermia in P2. Their distant relative, P3 (30 years; 46,XY), presented bilateral cryptorchidism and cryptozoospermia.

DESIGN: Exome sequencing was targeted to P1-P3 and five unaffected family members.

RESULTS: P1-P2 were identified as heterozygous carriers of NR5A1 c.991-1G > C. NR5A1 encodes the steroidogenic factor-1 essential in gonadal development and specifically expressed in adrenal, spleen, pituitary and testes. Together with a previous PGD case from Belgium (Robevska et al 2018), c.991-1G > C represents the first recurrent NR5A1 splice-site mutation identified in patients. The majority of previous reports on NR5A1 mutation carriers have not included phenotype-genotype data of the family members. Segregation analysis across three generations showed incomplete penetrance (<50%) and phenotypic variability among the carriers of NR5A1 c.991-1G > C. The variant pathogenicity was possibly modulated by rare heterozygous variants inherited from the other parent, OTX2 p.P134R (P1) or PROP1 c.301_302delAG (P2). For P3, the pedigree structure supported a distinct genetic cause. He carries a previously undescribed likely pathogenic variant SOS1 p.Y136H. SOS1, critical in Ras/MAPK signalling and foetal development, is a strong novel candidate gene for cryptorchidism.

CONCLUSIONS: Detailed genetic profiling facilitates counselling and clinical management of the probands, and supports unaffected mutation carriers in the family for their reproductive decision making.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Endocrinology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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