On the minimum required sampling frequency for reliable fatigue lifetime estimation in structural health monitoring. How much is enough?

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper


Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) represents the course of action of im-plementing a damage assessment strategy for engineering infrastructures. SHM systems can provide substantial aid towards the improvement of Off-shore Wind turbines (OWTs) reliability, sustainability, and profitability. Usually, SHM system development is affected by three major concerns: the sensing technology, the associated signal analysis, and the interpretation al-gorithm. In this work, we focus on the relevance of the signal analysis on fa-tigue, being one of the most relevant damage sources. At some stage of the signal analysis process, analogue signals from strain transducers shall go dig-itized for computer analysis. In this phase, the engineer pursues the trade-off between gathering all the necessary information and storing the minimum da-ta quantity. The sampling frequency adopted is paramount to this aim and can have substantial effects on the final lifetime estimated by damage accumula-tion rules. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is not well suited for min-imum sampling frequency estimation in OWTs SHM. It allows recovering the frequency content of the original signal (bandwidth limited) yet does not guarantee correct reconstruction of its amplitudes (quantisation error). On top of that, the quantisation error is always on the non-conservative side of the lifetime estimation. We, therefore, provide examples showing that a ratio of the signal maximum “significant frequency” to the sampling frequency great-er than or equal to ten (as opposed to two in the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem) is the rule of thumb to follow to avoid lifetime underestimation
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring
EditorsPiervincenzo Rizzo, Alberto Milazzo
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)2366-2565
ISBN (Print)9783031072536
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventEuropean workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2022) - Palermo, Italy
Duration: 4 Jul 20227 Jul 2022


ConferenceEuropean workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2022)
Abbreviated titleEWSHM 2022


  • Lifetime assessment
  • Offshore wind turbine foundations
  • Sampling frequency
  • Signal analysis
  • Stress life fatigue


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