Optimization and Analysis of Electric Vehicle Operation with Fast-Charging Technologies

Mohammed Al-Saadi, Mohammed Al-Saadi, Maitane Berecibar, Mierlo Joeri Van, Manuel Mathes, Johannes Käsgen , Koffrie Robert , Matthias Mayrock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


This work presents three demos, which include Electric Buses (EBs) from four various brands with lengths of 12 m and 18 m and an Electric Truck (E-truck) for refuse collection. The technical operation of these EVs were analyzed to implement further operational cost optimization on the demo vehicles. The Electric Vehicles (EVs) were tested against superfast-charging solutions based on Pantograph (Type A & Type B) on the route lines (and depots) and based on Combined Charging System Type 2 (CCS2, Combo2) from various brands to validate the interoperability among several vendors and support further EV integration with more affordable solutions. The optimization includes the calculation of the EBs’ consumption at various seasons and under various operating conditions in order to use optimum battery system design, heating system, optimum EB fleet operation and size and to find the charging solutions properly. The results showed that the EB consumption increases in some cases by 64.5% in wintertime due to heating systems, and the consumption in urban areas is more than that on the route lines outside cities. In the E-truck demo, where the electric heater was replaced with a heat-pump to optimize the energy consumption, it was found that the consumption of the heat-pump is about half of the electric heater under certain operating conditions. Under strict EB schedule, Pantograph charging solutions with power ratings of 300–600 kW have been adopted to charge the batteries of the EBs within 4–10 min. In order to minimize the cumulative costs of energy, (pantograph) charging infrastructure depreciation and battery degradation, as well as depot charging (at the bus operator’s depot), was adopted with a power level of 50–350 kW based on CCS2 and pantograph.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2022


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