Outcomes of different radioprotective precautions in children undergoing dental radiography: a systematic review

J W G Van Acker, N S Pauwels, R G E C Cauwels, S Rajasekharan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of all radioprotective measures in underage patients who undergo a dental radiodiagnostic examination.

METHODS: A systematic review was performed including randomised controlled trials (RCTs), or cluster trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies and comparative in vitro research. These studies examined the healthy underage human population (below 18 years) undergoing a dental radiodiagnostic examination. All radioprotective measures were included except for justification as an intervention. The primary outcomes were in vivo mortality and morbidity. Some surrogate or indirect outcomes such as in vitro effective dose and organ absorbed doses were also accepted. Secondary outcomes with regards to image quality and therapeutic value were also analysed.

RESULTS: Eighteen papers were eligible for implementation. Fifteen studies underwent narrative synthesis. Regression analysis was performed on three studies.

CONCLUSION: The following radioprotective measures can reduce the exposure dose. For lateral cephalometry: collimation, filtration, the fastest receptor type and circumstantial thyroid shielding. For oblique lateral radiographs: the shortest exposure time, a smaller horizontal angulation, a longer focus to skin distance. For intraoral radiography: rectangular collimation, the fastest image receptor speed and thyroid shielding when the thyroid gland is in line of or very close to the primary beam. For panoramic radiographs: collimation, the fastest receptor type and the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) or manual adjustment of intensity. For cone-beam computed tomography: collimation, the largest voxels size in relation to the treatment need, change in image settings such as ultra-low dose settings, shorter exposure time, a lower amount of projections, lower beam intensity, reduction of the potential, use of a thyroid shield except in two situations and the use of AEC. All of the changes in exposure parameters should be performed while maintaining a sufficient therapeutic value on an individual and indication-based level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-508
Number of pages46
JournalEuropean Archives of Paediatric Dentistry : Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Issue number4
Early online date16 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


Dive into the research topics of 'Outcomes of different radioprotective precautions in children undergoing dental radiography: a systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this