With the demographic evolution of the population, patients undergoing surgery today are older and have an increasing number of sometimes complex comorbidities. Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are also getting more and more complex with very sophisticated programming algorithms. It may be generally assumed that magnet application reverts pacing to an asynchronous mode in pacemakers and disables tachycardia detection/therapy in internal cardioverter-defibrillators. However, depending on device type, manufacturer and model, the response to magnet application may differ substantially. For these reasons, perioperative management of CIED patients is getting more and more challenging. With this review article we provide an overview of optimal perioperative management of CIED patients with a detailed description of CIED response to magnet application depending on manufacturer and device-type, which may help in providing a safe perioperative management plan for the CIED patient.
- cardiac implantable electronic device
- cardiac resynchronization therapy
- implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- magnet application
- perioperative management