Prediction of Impending Type 1 Diabetes through Automated Dual-Label Measurement of Proinsulin:C-Peptide Ratio

Annelien Van Dalem, Simke Demeester, Eric Balti Vounsia, Bart Keymeulen, Pieter Gillard, Bruno Lapauw, Christophe De Block, Pascale Abrams, Eric Weber, Ilse Vermeulen, Pieter De Pauw, Daniël Pipeleers, Ilse Weets, Frans K Gorus, Belgian Diabetes Registry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The hyperglycemic clamp test, the gold standard of beta cell function, predicts impending type 1 diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive individuals, but the latter may benefit from less invasive function tests such as the proinsulin:C-peptide ratio (PI:C). The present study aims to optimize precision of PI:C measurements by automating a dual-label trefoil-type time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TT-TRFIA), and to compare its diagnostic performance for predicting type 1 diabetes with that of clamp-derived C-peptide release.

METHODS: Between-day imprecision (n = 20) and split-sample analysis (n = 95) were used to compare TT-TRFIA (AutoDelfia, Perkin-Elmer) with separate methods for proinsulin (in-house TRFIA) and C-peptide (Elecsys, Roche). High-risk multiple autoantibody-positive first-degree relatives (n = 49; age 5-39) were tested for fasting PI:C, HOMA2-IR and hyperglycemic clamp and followed for 20-57 months (interquartile range).

RESULTS: TT-TRFIA values for proinsulin, C-peptide and PI:C correlated significantly (r2 = 0.96-0.99; P<0.001) with results obtained with separate methods. TT-TRFIA achieved better between-day %CV for PI:C at three different levels (4.5-7.1 vs 6.7-9.5 for separate methods). In high-risk relatives fasting PI:C was significantly and inversely correlated (rs = -0.596; P<0.001) with first-phase C-peptide release during clamp (also with second phase release, only available for age 12-39 years; n = 31), but only after normalization for HOMA2-IR. In ROC- and Cox regression analysis, HOMA2-IR-corrected PI:C predicted 2-year progression to diabetes equally well as clamp-derived C-peptide release.

CONCLUSIONS: The reproducibility of PI:C benefits from the automated simultaneous determination of both hormones. HOMA2-IR-corrected PI:C may serve as a minimally invasive alternative to the more tedious hyperglycemic clamp test.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0166702
Number of pages14
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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