No higher-order skill will be more important for pupils to develop in the twenty-first century than critical thinking. Schools should integrate it into their curricula, thereby allowing students to acquire new skills in preparation for a dynamic and rapidly changing labour market. Educators, psychologists, and philosophers agree on the importance of critical thinking, but there is a lack of agreement on what the concept entails and on how it should be taught. It is against this background that the present study examines primary-school teachers’ perceptions of teaching strategies aimed at stimulating pupils’ core critical-thinking skills. Twenty-one teachers working in European Schools in Brussels were questioned by means of semi-structured interviews, and the results showed the importance of group discussion, cooperative learning, brainstorming, and debate to teaching practice aimed at promoting critical thinking. This research contributes to defining a framework in innovative teaching methods for promoting critical thinking.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalEducational Studies
Early online date10 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • Critical thinking
  • teaching strategies
  • teachers’ experiences
  • primary education
  • European Schools


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