Prokaryote toxin-antitoxin modules: complex regulation of an unclear function

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
118 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are small operons in bacteria and archaea that encode a metabolic inhibitor (toxin) and a matching regulatory protein (antitoxin). While their biochemical activities are often well defined, their biological functions remain unclear. In type II TA modules, both toxin and antitoxin are proteins, and the antitoxin inhibits the biochemical activity of the toxin via complex formation with the toxin. The different TA modules vary significantly regarding structure and biochemical activity. Both regulation of protein activity by the antitoxin and regulation of transcription can be highly complex and sometimes show striking parallels between otherwise unrelated TA modules. Interplay between the multiple levels of regulation in the broader context of the cell as a whole is most likely required for optimum fine-tuning of these systems. Thus, TA modules can go through great lengths to prevent activation and to reverse accidental activation, in agreement with recent in vivo data. These complex mechanisms seem at odds with the lack of a clear biological function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1103-1113
Number of pages11
JournalProtein Sci
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO-Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO-Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).

Funding Information:
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO‐Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO‐Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Protein Society.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Toxin-Antitoxin module
  • Structural Biology
  • Transcription regulation

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Prokaryote toxin-antitoxin modules: complex regulation of an unclear function'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this