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Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are small operons in bacteria and archaea that encode a metabolic inhibitor (toxin) and a matching regulatory protein (antitoxin). While their biochemical activities are often well defined, their biological functions remain unclear. In type II TA modules, both toxin and antitoxin are proteins, and the antitoxin inhibits the biochemical activity of the toxin via complex formation with the toxin. The different TA modules vary significantly regarding structure and biochemical activity. Both regulation of protein activity by the antitoxin and regulation of transcription can be highly complex and sometimes show striking parallels between otherwise unrelated TA modules. Interplay between the multiple levels of regulation in the broader context of the cell as a whole is most likely required for optimum fine-tuning of these systems. Thus, TA modules can go through great lengths to prevent activation and to reverse accidental activation, in agreement with recent in vivo data. These complex mechanisms seem at odds with the lack of a clear biological function.
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO-Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO-Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO‐Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO‐Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).
© 2021 The Authors. Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Protein Society.
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Toxin-Antitoxin module
- Structural Biology
- Transcription regulation
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FWOAL967: Structural and thermodynamic dissection of fuzzy protein-DNA interactions in a prokaryotic transcription factor
1/01/20 → 31/12/23
SRP13: Strategic Research Programme: Structure and dynamics of macromolecular complexes in health and disease
Steyaert, J., Remaut, H. K., Loris, R., Efremov, R., Steyaert, J., Loris, R. & Remaut, H. K.
1/11/12 → 31/10/24
FWOTM961: Mechanism of Gyrase-poisoning by ParE and its rejuvenation by ParD
1/11/19 → 31/10/21
Bistable expression of a toxin-antitoxin system located in a cryptic prophage of Escherichia coliO157:H7Jurenas, D., Fraikin, N., Goormaghtigh, F., De Bruyn, P., Vandervelde, A., Jove, T., Charlier, D., Loris, R. & Van Melderen, L., 21 Dec 2021, In: mBio. 12, 6, 15 p., e0294721.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile3 Citations (Scopus)35 Downloads (Pure)
Entropic pressure controls olgomerization of Vibrio cholerae ParD2 antitoxinGarcia Rodriguez, G., Girardin, Y., Volkov, O., Singh, R. K., Muruganandam, G., Van Dyck, J., Sobott, F., Versées, W., Charlier, D. & Loris, R., 18 Jun 2021, In: Acta Crystallographica Section D: Structural Biology (2016- ). 77, Pt 7, p. 904-920 17 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile3 Citations (Scopus)87 Downloads (Pure)
Nanobody-aided crystallization of the transcription regulator PaaR2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7De Bruyn, P., Prolic Kalinsek, M., Vandervelde, A., Malfait, M., Sterckx, Y., Sobott, F., Hadzi, S., Pardon, E., Steyaert, J. & Loris, R., 1 Oct 2021, In: Acta Crystallographica Section F - Structural Biology Communications. 77, 10, p. 374-384 11 p., 11.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile54 Downloads (Pure)
- 1 Talk or presentation at a conference
4rth International Conference on Applied Microbiology and Beneficial Microbes, Paris, France
Remy Loris (Speaker)7 Nov 2022 → 8 Nov 2022
Activity: Talk or presentation › Talk or presentation at a conference