Pulsed Hyperoxia Acts on Plasmatic Advanced Glycation End Products and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Pilot Study on the "Normobaric Oxygen Paradox"

Costantino Balestra, Sara Baldelli, Fabio Virgili, Michele Salvagno, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Deborah Fratantonio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The "normobaric oxygen paradox" (NOP) describes the response to the return to normoxia after a hyperoxic event, sensed by tissues as an oxygen shortage, up-regulating redox-sensitive transcription factors. We have previously characterized the time trend of oxygen-sensitive transcription factors in human PBMCs, in which the return to normoxia after 30% oxygen is sensed as a hypoxic trigger, characterized by hypoxia-induced factor (HIF-1) activation. On the contrary, 100% and 140% oxygen induce a shift toward an oxidative stress response, characterized by NRF2 and NF-kB activation in the first 24 h post exposure. Herein, we investigate whether this paradigm triggers Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs) as circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. Secondly, we studied if mitochondrial biogenesis was involved to link the cellular response to oxidative stress in human PBMCs. Our results show that AGEs and AOPPs increase in a different manner according to oxygen dose. Mitochondrial levels of peroxiredoxin (PRX3) supported the cellular response to oxidative stress and increased at 24 h after mild hyperoxia, MH (30% O2), and high hyperoxia, HH (100% O2), while during very high hyperoxia, VHH (140% O2), the activation was significantly high only at 3 h after oxygen exposure. Mitochondrial biogenesis was activated through nuclear translocation of PGC-1α in all the experimental conditions. However, the consequent release of nuclear Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM) was observed only after MH exposure. Conversely, HH and VHH are associated with a progressive loss of NOP response in the ability to induce TFAM expression despite a nuclear translocation of PGC-1α also occurring in these conditions. This study confirms that pulsed high oxygen treatment elicits specific cellular responses, according to its partial pressure and time of administration, and further emphasizes the importance of targeting the use of oxygen to activate specific effects on the whole organism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2394
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Oxygen/pharmacology
  • Hyperoxia/metabolism
  • Advanced Oxidation Protein Products/metabolism
  • Pilot Projects
  • Organelle Biogenesis
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism
  • Transcription Factors/genetics
  • Hypoxia
  • Oxidative Stress/physiology
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism

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