Data set description: This data set is composed by label-free alternate-scanning LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis human and Wistar rat pancreatic islet endocrine cells. The mass spectrometry data of the human and rat pancreatic beta cells and the resulting proteome search output from ProteinLynx GlobalSERVER (PLGS) have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium  via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifiers PXD001539 (human) and PXD001816 (rat). From these mass spectrometry data, 'relative molar amount units' between cell types and across species were calculated. Biological relevance: These data provide a quantitative view on the unfractionated proteomes of human and rat beta and alpha cells. It is likely biased towards the proteins with higher molar abundance, relating to core functional pathways, but also includes several proteins with an islet-enriched expression. The quality of the cell preps is state-of-the-art, and the label-free quantitation is both precise and accurate, allowing detailed quantitative analysis.