Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence following cryoballoon ablation may occur as a consequence of pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection, which can be treated effectively by performing repeat PV isolation. Alternatively, AF recurrence can manifest in presence of bilateral antral PV isolation. In such circumstances, one may pursue catheter ablation of AF triggers, if present, or proceed with empiric posterior left atrial wall ablation. Although traditionally, focal radiofrequency ablation has been used for this, cryoballoon ablation, itself, may also be used for ablation/isolation of certain structures such as the superior vena cava, the left atrial appendage and even the posterior left atrial wall.
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- Atrial fibrillation
- Catheter ablation
- Pulmonary vein isolation