Residential pellet boilers in Belgium: Standard laboratory and real life performance with respect to European standard and quality labels.

Vijay Kumar Verma, Svend Bram, Isabelle Vandendael, Priya Laha, Annick Hubin, Jacques De Ruyck

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40 Citations (Scopus)


Twelve residential wood pellet boilers were tested for the emissions of carbon monoxide
(CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), dust and combustion efficiency in real life and standard laboratory
conditions and values were compared with the permissible values of Blue Angel, Swan Mark and EN
303-5. The set of tested boilers consisted of eight boilers equipped with bottom feed burner (BF), two
with top feed (TF) and three with horizontal feed burner (HF). Wood pellets used for all the
experiments were DINplus certified.
Emissions of dust from BF (except BF-4) and HF boilers in real life condition were lesser than in
standard laboratory conditions, however, all boilers had lesser efficiency in real life condition (2 to 5 %
less) than in standard laboratory condition. Emissions of NOx and dust were maximum with TF-2
(314.06 and 46.96 mgNm-3, respectively) however; CO emission was maximum with TF-1 (1565.80
mgNm-3). Furthermore, dust particles from TF boilers contained a considerable amount of elemental
carbon and were smaller in size than particles from bottom feed and horizontal feed boilers.
All the boilers satisfied emissions and efficiency requirements of Swan Mark (except TF boilers for CO
and TF-2 for dust) and EN 303-5, both in standard laboratory and in real life conditions. Permissible
emissions and efficiency requirements of Blue Angel are the most stringent one and only BF-3, HF-2,
BF-4 (except efficiency) and HF-1 (except CO) met the Blue Angel quality requirements in real life
condition. BF and HF boilers have advantage over TF boilers, having lesser emissions and higher
efficiency. Despite the minor difference in quality of wood pellet fuels, several distinctions were
reported in the emissions and efficiencies of the boilers equipped with different types of burner.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2628-2634
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Energy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


  • Real life condition, standard laboratory condition
  • quality label, wood pellet boiler.


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