Results of a Multicenter Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Ciprofloxacin in Children with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection.

Kevin Meesters, Robin Michelet, Reiner Mauel, Ann Raes, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Johan Vande Walle, An Vermeulen

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Resistance rates for ciprofloxacin, which is labeled for treating complicated urinary tract infections in children, are rapidly rising. As there is limited knowledge on developmental pharmacology of ciprofloxacin, the primary aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for ciprofloxacin in children treated for complicated urinary tract infections. Children to whom ciprofloxacin was prescribed, intravenous (10 to 15 mg/kg body weight every 12 h) or per os (15 to 20 mg/kg every 12 h), were enrolled. One hundred eight serum and 119 urine samples were obtained during 10 intravenous and 13 oral courses of ciprofloxacin in 22 patients (age range, 0.31 to 15.51 years). A one-compartment model best described our data. Fat-free mass and glomerular filtration rate (estimated by a formula using cystatin C and creatinine), standardized for body surface area, were significant covariates for ciprofloxacin clearance. In our population, ciprofloxacin clearance is 0.16 to 0.43 liter/h/kg of body weight, volume of distribution 0.06 to 2.88 liters/kg, and bioavailability 59.6%. All of our patients had a clinical cure of their infection. Based on target attainment simulations across doses, all children reached the pharmacodynamic target for Enterobacteriaceae, but on average only 53% did for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 3% for Staphylococcus aureus, at the 15-mg/kg oral dose. For treating urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oral doses should be at least 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, in our population, fat-free mass and kidney function should be considered, as they prove to be significant covariates for ciprofloxacin clearance and, hence, exposure. (This study has been registered at under identifier NCT02598362.)

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00517-18
Pages (from-to)e00517-e00518
Number of pages2
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number9
Early online date9 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018


  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Pediatric pharmacology
  • Population pharmacokinetics
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Urinary tract infection


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