Rhythm in dyadic interactions

Koen de Reus, Masayo Soma, Marianna Anichini, Marco Gamba, Marianne de Heer Kloots, Miriam Lense, Julia Hyland Bruno, Laurel Trainor, Andrea Ravignani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


This review paper discusses rhythmic interactions and distinguishes them from non-rhythmic interactions. We report on communicative behaviours in social and sexual contexts, as found in dyads of humans, non-human primates, non-primate mammals, birds, anurans and insects. We discuss observed instances of rhythm in dyadic interactions, identify knowledge gaps and propose suggestions for future research. We find that most studies on rhythmicity in interactive signals mainly focus on one modality (acoustic or visual) and we suggest more work should be performed on multimodal signals. Although the social functions of interactive rhythms have been fairly well described, developmental research on rhythms used to regulate social interactions is still lacking. Future work should also focus on identifying the exact timing mechanisms involved. Rhythmic signalling behaviours are widespread and critical in regulating social interactions across taxa, but many questions remain unexplored. A multidisciplinary, comparative cross-species approach may help provide answers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20200337
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1835
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2021


  • animal communication
  • dyadic interaction
  • rhythm
  • signal timing
  • synchrony
  • multimodality


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