Risk Severity Model for Pediatric Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Using 3D Ultrasound Volumetry

CRISP Consortium, Luc Breysem, Frederik De Keyzer, Pieter Schellekens, Angélique Dachy, Stephanie De Rechter, Peter Janssens, Rudi Vennekens, Bert Bammens, Maria V Irazabal, Chantal Van Ongeval, Peter C Harris, Djalila Mekahli

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BACKGROUND: Height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) measured by imaging defined as Mayo Imaging Class (MIC) is a validated prognostic measure for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adults to predict and stratify disease progression. However, no stratification tool is currently available in pediatric ADPKD. Because magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in children are difficult, we propose a novel 3D ultrasound-based pediatric Leuven Imaging Classification to complement the MIC.

METHODS: A prospective study cohort of 74 patients with genotyped ADPKD (37 female) was followed longitudinally with ultrasound, including 3D ultrasound, and they underwent in total 247 3D ultrasound assessments, with patients' median age (interquartile range [IQR]) at diagnosis of 3 (IQR, 0-9) years and at first 3D ultrasound evaluation of 10 (5-14) years. First, data matching was done to the published MIC classification, followed by subsequent optimization of parameters and model type.

RESULTS: PKD1 was confirmed in 70 patients (95%), PKD2 in three (4%), and glucosidase IIα unit only once (1%). Over these 247 evaluations, the median height was 143 (IQR, 122-166) cm and total kidney volume was 236 (IQR, 144-344) ml, leading to an htTKV of 161 (IQR, 117-208) ml/m. Applying the adult Mayo classification in children younger than 15 years strongly underestimated ADPKD severity, even with correction for height. We therefore optimized the model with our pediatric data and eventually validated it with data of young patients from Mayo Clinic and the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease used to establish the MIC.

CONCLUSIONS: We proposed a five-level Leuven Imaging Classification ADPKD pediatric model as a novel classification tool on the basis of patients' age and 3D ultrasound-htTKV for reliable discrimination of childhood ADPKD severity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-591
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number5
Early online date17 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Risk Severity Model
  • Kidney disease
  • 3D ultrasound volumetry
  • Pediatric


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