Secondary-metabolites fingerprinting of Argania spinosa kernels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometrics, for metabolite identification and quantification as well as for geographic classification

Mourad Kharbach, Johan Viaene, Huiwen Yu, Rabie Kamal, Ilias Marmouzi, Abdelaziz Bouklouze, Yvan Vander Heyden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Argan (Argania spinosa L.) fruit kernels' composition has been poorly studied and received less research intensity than the resulting Argan oil. The Moroccan Argan kernels contain a wealth of metabolites and can be investigated for nutritional and health aspects as well as for economic benefits. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was employed to trace the geographical origin of Argan kernels based on secondary-metabolite profiles. One-hundred and twenty Argan fruit kernels from five regions ('Agadir', 'Ait-Baha' 'Essaouira', 'Tiznit' and 'Taroudant') were studied. Characterization and quantification of 36 secondary metabolites (33 polyphenolic and 3 non-phenolic) were achieved. Those metabolites are highly influenced by the geographic origin. Then, the untargeted UPLC-MS fingerprint was decomposed by metabolomic data handling tools, such as multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and XCMS. The two resulting data matrices were pretreated and prepared separately by chemometric tools and then two data fusion strategies (low- and mid-levels) were applied on them. The four data sets were comparatively investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) were used to classify samples. The exploration or classification models demonstrated a good ability to discriminate and classify the samples in the geographical-origin based classes. Summarized, the developed fingerprints and their metabolomics-based data handling successfully allowed geographical traceability evaluation of Moroccan Argan kernels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number462972
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chromatography. A
Volume1670
Early online date24 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Argan fruit kernels
  • Argania spinosa L
  • UPLC-MS
  • Multivariate Classification
  • Untargeted fingerprints
  • Metabolomic profiles

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