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Glioblastomas are aggressive primary brain cancers that recur as therapy-resistant tumors. Myeloid cells control glioblastoma malignancy, but their dynamics during disease progression remain poorly understood. Here, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing and CITE-seq to map the glioblastoma immune landscape in mouse tumors and in patients with newly diagnosed disease or recurrence. This revealed a large and diverse myeloid compartment, with dendritic cell and macrophage populations that were conserved across species and dynamic across disease stages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) consisted of microglia- or monocyte-derived populations, with both exhibiting additional heterogeneity, including subsets with conserved lipid and hypoxic signatures. Microglia- and monocyte-derived TAMs were self-renewing populations that competed for space and could be depleted via CSF1R blockade. Microglia-derived TAMs were predominant in newly diagnosed tumors, but were outnumbered by monocyte-derived TAMs following recurrence, especially in hypoxic tumor environments. Our results unravel the glioblastoma myeloid landscape and provide a framework for future therapeutic interventions.
- Brain Neoplasms/immunology
- Single-Cell Analysis
- Tumor-Associated Macrophages/cytology
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