Symbolic Orders and Structure of Universal Internalization

Cadell Last

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Big History is a theoretical field attempting to ground a historical evolutionary
view of the physical universe. However, in this paper the author argues that
such a view by necessity can only remain on the first order of discourse. In the
first order of discourse the observer remains external to the system objectively
under reflective observation. This approach has proven effective and useful but
remains limited in terms of understanding the evolution of the symbolic order.
Internal to the symbolic order networks of observers produce and maintain
their identities via mechanics of reflection that are independent of any external
systemic objectivity. Consequently, in this work the author explores the potential for Big History to approach the problematics of a higher order framework
inclusive of observers. The main goal of this approach is to understand the
ways in which symbolic orders evolve across time reflectively transforming
visions of past and future
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEvolution
Subtitle of host publicationEvolutionary Trends and Aspects
PublisherVolgograd: 'Uchitel' Publishing House
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)978-5-7057-5560-8
ISBN (Print)978-5-7057-5560-8
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Cadell Last is a philosopher with an interdisciplinary background in fields of evolutionary anthropology, psychoanalysis, complexity science and big history. He has spent much of his life searching for the truth of being through questions about the difference between humans and nature, and the consequences of human difference for nature.


  • Big history
  • Philosophy
  • futures
  • cybernetics
  • systems


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