The dark side of thinking through other minds

Sander Van de Cruys, Francis Heylighen

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate


We show that TTOM has a lot to offer for the study of the evolution of cultures, but that this also brings to the fore the dark implications of TTOM, unexposed in Veissière et al. Those implications lead us to move beyond meme-centered or an organism-centered concept of fitness based on free-energy minimization, toward a social system-centered view.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberE116
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Predictive coding
  • social cognition

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