The endometrial microbiota of women with or without a live birth within 12 months after a first failed IVF/ICSI cycle

Bich Ngoc Bui, Nienke van Hoogenhuijze, Marco Viveen, Femke Mol, Gijs Teklenburg, Jan-Peter de Bruin, Dagmar Besselink, Linda Stevens Brentjens, Shari Mackens, Malbert R C Rogers, Gaby S Steba, Frank Broekmans, Fernanda L Paganelli, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert

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The endometrial microbiota composition may be associated with implantation success. However, a 'core' composition has not yet been defined. This exploratory study analysed the endometrial microbiota by 16S rRNA sequencing (V1-V2 region) of 141 infertile women whose first IVF/ICSI cycle failed and compared the microbiota profiles of women with and without a live birth within 12 months of follow-up, and by infertility cause and type. Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in the majority of samples. Women with a live birth compared to those without had significantly higher Lactobacillus crispatus relative abundance (RA) (p = 0.029), and a smaller proportion of them had ≤ 10% L. crispatus RA (42.1% and 70.4%, respectively; p = 0.015). A smaller proportion of women in the male factor infertility group had ≤ 10% L. crispatus RA compared to women in the unexplained and other infertility causes groups combined (p = 0.030). Women with primary infertility compared to secondary infertility had significantly higher L. crispatus RA (p = 0.004); lower proportions of them had ≤ 10% L. crispatus RA (p = 0.009) and > 10% Gardnerella vaginalis RA (p = 0.019). In conclusion, IVF/ICSI success may be associated with L. crispatus RA and secondary infertility with endometrial dysbiosis, more often than primary infertility. These hypotheses should be tested in rigorous well-powered longitudinal studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3444
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • Humans
  • Female
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Live Birth
  • Infertility, Female
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
  • Infertility, Male
  • Microbiota


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