The JTB+S definition of knowledge: solving Gettier's problem

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The JTB definition of knowledge has been shown by Gettier to be incomplete: its three conditions are necessary for knowledge, but not sufficient. We argue that the JTB definition can be completed with a very simple fourth condition, namely that the justification for the belief in p must be sufficient to exclude ¬p. It is shown that the resulting JTB+S definition solves the Gettier problem.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages3
Publication statusUnpublished - May 2024


  • JTB definition of knowledge
  • JTB+X approach
  • knowledge
  • Epistemology
  • Gettier's problem


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