The relationship between basic, instrumental, and advanced activities of daily living and executive functioning in geriatric patients with neurocognitive disorders

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Although many studies explored the relationship between executive functions (EF) and activities of daily living (ADLs) in cognitive disorders, previous studies used measurements without well-defined levels of ADLs. This study explored the relationship between EF and the threefold classification of everyday functioning (basic or b-, instrumental or i-, and advanced or a-ADLs) and examined how EF account for the variance in this triad of everyday functioning.

METHODS: A sample of 44 cognitively healthy persons, 41 persons with mild cognitive impairment, and 35 persons with Alzheimer disease were assessed with comprehensive measures of EF and the b-, i-, and a-ADL tools.

RESULTS: Correlations demonstrated that subjects with higher executive dysfunctions have more limitations in b-, i-, and a-ADLs. The highest significant correlations with measures of EF were seen in i- and a-ADLs (ranging from r = -0.193 to r = -0.559, P < 0.05). However, correlations with a-ADLs were not stronger than with i-ADLs. The multivariate analyses revealed Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) as a significant contributor of everyday functioning in b-ADLs, as well as i- and a-ADLs, and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Animal Fluency Test (AFT) seemed to contribute significantly to variance in i- and a-ADLs.

CONCLUSIONS: EF are less related to b-ADLs than i- and a-ADLs and contribute to the same amount of variance to limitations in both i- and a-ADLs. This study recommends using the TMT-A, CDT, and AFT as screening tools to indicate the need for profound evaluation of ADLs in older persons with neurocognitive disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-899
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords

  • activities of daily living
  • Alzheimer disease
  • assessment
  • dementia
  • everyday functioning
  • executive functions
  • mild cognitive impairment

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