The Relationship of Lightning Radio Pulse Amplitudes and Source Altitudes as Observed by LOFAR

Stijn Buitink, Olaf Scholten, Arthur Corstanje, Jörg Hörandel, Tim Huege, Godwin Komla Krampah, Pragati Mitra, Katharine Mulrey, Hershal Pandya, Jörg Paul Rachen

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Abstract

When a lightning flash is propagating in the atmosphere it is known that especially the negative leaders emit a large number of very high frequency (VHF) radio pulses. It is thought that this is due to streamer activity at the tip of the growing negative leader. In this work, we have investigated the dependence of the strength of this VHF emission on the altitude of such emission for two lightning flashes as observed by the Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope. We find for these two flashes that the extracted amplitude distributions are consistent with a power-law, and that the amplitude of the radio emissions decreases very strongly with source altitude, by more than a factor of 2 from 1 km altitude up to 5 km altitude. In addition, we do not find any dependence on the extracted power-law with altitude, and that the extracted power-law slope has an average around 3, for both flashes.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2021EA001958
Number of pages8
JournalEarth and Space Science Open Archive
Volume9
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was financed in part by the Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001 and by the Fundao de Apoio Pesquisa do Distrito Federal ‐ FAP/DF. The LOFAR cosmic‐ray key science project acknowledges funding from an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (FP/2007–2013) / ERC Grant Agreement no. 227610. The project has also received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 640130). The authors furthermore acknowledge financial support from FOM, (FOM‐project 12PR304). S. Thoudam acknowledges funding from the Khalifa University Startup grant (project code 8474000237). B. M. Hare is supported by NWO (VI.VENI.192.071). K. Mulrey is supported by FWO (FWO‐12ZD920N). A. Nelles acknowledges the DFG grant NE 2031/2‐1. T. N. G. Trinh acknowledges funding from the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under (Grant number 103.01‐2019.378). LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has facilities in several countries, that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources), and that are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope foundation under a joint scientific policy.

Funding Information:
This study was financed in part by the Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001 and by the Fundao de Apoio Pesquisa do Distrito Federal - FAP/DF. The LOFAR cosmic-ray key science project acknowledges funding from an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (FP/2007?2013) / ERC Grant Agreement no. 227610. The project has also received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 640130). The authors furthermore acknowledge financial support from FOM, (FOM-project 12PR304). S. Thoudam acknowledges funding from the Khalifa University Startup grant (project code 8474000237). B. M. Hare is supported by NWO (VI.VENI.192.071). K. Mulrey is supported by FWO (FWO-12ZD920N). A. Nelles acknowledges the DFG grant NE 2031/2-1. T. N. G. Trinh acknowledges funding from the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under (Grant number 103.01-2019.378). LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has facilities in several countries, that are owned by various parties (each with their own funding sources), and that are collectively operated by the International LOFAR Telescope foundation under a joint scientific policy.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors.

Copyright:
Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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