Ultra high energy cosmic rays The intersection of the Cosmic and Energy Frontiers

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The present white paper is submitted as part of the ‘‘Snowmass’’ process to help inform the long-term plans
of the United States Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation for high-energy physics. It
summarizes the science questions driving the Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray (UHECR) community and provides
recommendations on the strategy to answer them in the next two decades.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102819
Number of pages120
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Issue number2023
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to first thank all of those who participated in the UHECRs white-paper planning and review meetings, as well as all of the authors who contributed letters of interest to the original Snowmass call for submissions. We would like to especially acknowledge those who provided editorial feedback on the content and presentation of the materials of this white paper. In particular, we would like to thank Hernan Asorey, Peter L. Biermann, Johannes Blümer, Mauricio Bustamante, Carola Dobrigkeit, Bianca Keilhauer, Jim Matthews, Silvia Mollerach, Hiroyuki Sagawa, Max Stadelmaier, Fabian Schüssler, Franco Vazza, and Alan Watson for their timely and critical feedback. We would like to also thank the IceCube, Pierre Auger, and Telescope Array collaborations for their work, commentary and vetting. Finally, we would like to particularly recognize the funding agencies, organizations, individuals, governments and, above all, tax payers who have financed the on-going study of UHECRs; thank you, this white-paper would have been impossible without your support. Additionally: • J. Alvarez-Muñiz and E. Zas would like to acknowledge funding from Xunta de Galicia (Centro singular deinvestigación de Galicia accreditation 2019–2022), from European Union ERDF, from the ”María deMaeztu” Units of Excellence program MDM-2016-0692, the Spanish Research State Agency and from Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación PID2019-105544GB-I00 and RED2018-102661-T (RENATA). • R. Alves Batista acknowledges the support of the “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 847648, fellowship code LCF/BQ/PI21/11830030. • L. A. Anchordoqui is supported by the US National Science Foundation NSF Grant PHY-2112527. • E. Bechtol would like to acknowledge the Multimessenger Diversity Network and the support of the National Science Foundation. • D.R. Bergman acknowledges support from the U.S National Science Foundation under the grants PHY-2012934 and PHY-2112904 and from the U.S. National Space and Aeronautics Administration under grant 80NSSC19K0485. • P. B. Denton acknowledges support from the US Department of Energy under Grant Contract DE-SC0012704. • H. Dujmovic and F. Schroeder would like to acknowledge that this project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 802729). F. Schroeder was also supported by grants NSF EPSCoR RII Track-2 FEC award #2019597 and NSF CAREER award #2046386 as was A. Coleman. • R. Conceição and F. Riehn would like to acknowledge the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia via DL57/2016/cP1330/cT0002 and CERN/FIS-PAR/0020/2021. • J. Eser was supported by NASA grant 16-APRA16-0113. • N. Globus’ research is supported by the Simons Foundation, The Chancellor Fellowship at UCSC and the Vera Rubin Presidential Chair. • J. Glombitza would like to acknowledge the support by the Ministry of Innovation, Science and Research of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) • G. Golup would like to acknowledge the support of CONICET (PIP 11220200100565CO) and ANPCyT (PICT 2018–03069). • M. Gritsevich acknowledges the Academy of Finland project nos. 325806 and 338042. • P. Klimov was supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant 22-62-00010. • K. Kotera would like to acknowledge the support of the APACHE grant (ANR-16-CE31-0001) of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. • J. F. Krizmanic acknowledges support by NASA grant 80NSSC19K0626 at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County under proposal 17-APRA17–0066 at NASA/GSFC and JPL and NASA grant 16-APROBES-0023. • A. V. Olinto was supported by NASA grant 80NSSC18K0246. • E. Mayotte, S. Mayotte, and F. Sarazin would like to acknowledge the support of the NSF through grant #2013146 and NASA through grant #80NSSC19K0460. • J. Madsen would like to acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Polar Programs, the NSF-Physics Division, and the NSF Division of Research on Learning. • I. C. Mariş would like to acknowledge the support of Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS). • J. N. Matthews is grateful for the long standing support of the University of Utah Cosmic Ray group by US. National Science Foundation under numerous grants. • M. S. Muzio would like to acknowledge support by the NSF MPS-Ascend Postdoctoral Award #2138121. • M. Plum was supported by the grant NSF EPSCoR RII Track-2 FEC award 2019597. • L. W. Piotrowski acknowledges financing by the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange within Polish Returns Programme no. PPN/PPO/2020/1/00024/U/00001 and National Science Centre, Poland grant no. 2021/01/1/ST2/00002”. • E. Santos, J. Vícha, and A. Yushov would like to acknowledge the support of the Czech Science Foundation via 21-02226M and MSMT CR via CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402, CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/18_046/0016010, CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17_049/0008422, LTT18004, LM2015 038, and LM2018102. • F. Schlüter is supported by the Helmholtz International Research School for Astroparticle Physics and Enabling Technologies (HIRSAP) (grant number HIRS-0009). • D. H. Shoemaker thanks the NSF for support of the LIGO Lab, CA #1764464. • D. Soldin acknowledges support from the US NSF Grant PHY-1913607. • Y. Tsunesada is supported by Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through Science Research (A)JP18H03705. • T. Venters would like to acknowledge the support of NASA through grant 17-APRA17-0066. • The LAGO Collaboration would like to thank the Pierre Auger Collaboration for its continuous support. • Mini-EUSO was supported by Italian Space Agency through the ASI INFN agreement n. 2020-26-HH.0 and contract n. 2016-1-U.0. • The conceptual design of POEMMA was supported by NASA Probe Mission Concept Study grant NNX17AJ82G for the 2020 Decadal Survey Planning. Additional contributions to POEMMA were supported in part by NASA awards 16-APROBES16-0023, NNX17AJ82G, NNX13AH54G, 80NSSC18K0246, and 80NSSC18K0473. • The co-authors at German institutions would like to generally acknowledge and thank the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for their support. Lastly, it is important to note that the opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the above listed funding agencies.

Funding Information:
Open data and open science have largely become a funding condition for large-scale facilities financed by tax payer’s money. This is because open data and science are clearly drivers of innovation and not only for information technology, but also for the science itself. Despite this, most of the original research data available in astroparticle physics has so far been primarily exploited by the researchers or research institutions who directly participated in its production. This stands in contrast to what is already standard in the astrophysics and astronomy community, where open data has been very successfully employed for some time. This is a pity as the current situation restricts the ability for outsiders to carry out a secondary exploitation of the data, and in particular for multi-messenger, i.e., multi-experimental analyses.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


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