Ultrasound imaging of anatomical variations of humeral insertions of the subscapular muscle

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Aims: the purpose of this study was to highlight the variations of the humeral insertion of the muscle in vivo, by means of an ultrasound (Us) device to depict anatomical variations that could lead to instability of the scapulohumeral complex. Methods: this prospective study (Irb approval) brings a dynamic imaging of the anatomical variation by Us exploration of 193 shoulders to confirm MrI and dissection approaches. results: the results confirm the previous classification of two different classes of organization. 20% with a non-fibrous bridge over the intertubercular groove (type I and II combined) and 80% with a fibrous bridge over the tendon of the long head of the bicipital tendon muscle (type III and IV combined). Furthermore, statistical analysis (Fisher and chi square test with a threshold of 95%) showed that this variation is not related to gender, side or laterality. conclusion: this study shows the same results as obtained by dissection or MrI, meaning that this non-radiating, easy to perform technique can be used as a first approach in a dynamic clinical examination to detect anatomical variations of the subscapular muscle.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalEdorium Journal of Anatomy and Embryology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2018


  • anatomical variations
  • imaging
  • subscapular muscle
  • Ultrasound

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