Background. Clinical islet transplantation is generally conducted within 72 hours after isolating sufficient beta-cell mass. A preparation that does not meet the sufficient dose can be cultured until this is reached after combination with subsequent ones. This retrospective study examines whether metabolic outcome is influenced by culture duration. Methods. Forty type 1 diabetes recipients of intraportal islet cell grafts under antithymocyte globulin induction and mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression were analyzed. One subgroup (n = 10) was transplanted with preparations cultured for ≥96 hours; in the other subgroup (n = 30) grafts contained similar beta-cell numbers but included isolates that were cultured for a shorter duration. Both subgroups were compared by numbers with plasma C-peptide ≥0.5 ng/mL, low glycemic variability associated with C-peptide ≥1.0 ng/mL, and with insulin independence. Results. The subgroup with all cells cultured ≥96 hours exhibited longer C-peptide ≥0.5 ng/mL (103 versus 48 mo; P = 0.006), and more patients with low glycemic variability and C-peptide ≥1.0 ng/mL, at month 12 (9/10 versus 12/30; P = 0.005) and 24 (7/10 versus 6/30; P = 0.007). In addition, 9/10 became insulin-independent versus 15/30 (P = 0.03). Grafts with all cells cultured ≥96 hours did not contain more beta cells but a higher endocrine purity (49% versus 36%; P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, longer culture duration and older recipient age were independently associated with longer graft function. Conclusions. Human islet isolates with insufficient beta-cell mass for implantation within 72 hours can be cultured for 96 hours and longer to combine multiple preparations in order to reach the desired beta-cell dose and therefore result in a better metabolic benefit.