Validation of a Belgian Prediction Model for Patient Encounters at Football Mass Gatherings

Kris Spaepen, Door Lauwaert, Leonard Kaufman, Winne Ap Haenen, Ives Hubloue

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BACKGROUND: To validate the Belgian Plan Risk Manifestations (PRIMA) model, actual patient presentation rates (PPRs) from Belgium's largest football stadium were compared with predictions provided by existing models and the Belgian PRIMA model.

METHODS: Actual patient presentations gathered from 41 football games (2010-2019) played at the King Baudouin Stadium (Brussels, Belgium) were compared with predictions by existing models and the PRIMA model. All attendees who sought medical help from in-event health services (IEHS) in the stadium or called 1-1-2 within the closed perimeter around the stadium were included. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Pearson correlation tests, and Wilcoxon singed-rank test.

RESULTS: A total of 1,630,549 people attended the matches, with 626 people needing first aid. Both the PRIMA and the Hartman model over-estimated the number of patient encounters for each occasion. The Arbon model under-estimated patient encounters for 9.75% (95% CI, 0.49-19.01) of the events. When comparing deviations in predictions between the PRIMA model to the other models, there was a significant difference in the mean deviation (Arbon: Z = -5.566, P <.001, r = -.61; Hartman: Z = -4.245, P <.001, r = .47).

CONCLUSION: When comparing the predicted patient encounters, only the Arbon model under-predicted patient presentations, but the Hartman and the PRIMA models consistently over-predicted. Because of continuous over-prediction, the PRIMA model showed significant differences in mean deviation of predicted PPR. The results of this study suggest that the PRIMA model can be used during planning for domestic and international football matches played at the King Baudouin Stadium, but more data and further research are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)724-729
Number of pages6
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Anniversaries and Special Events
  • Belgium
  • Emergency Medical Services
  • First Aid
  • Football
  • Humans


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