Voltage Vector Redundancy Exploitation for Battery Balancing in Three-Phase CHB-Based Modular Energy Storage Systems

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This article presents a flexible controller algorithm for bidirectional modular cascaded H-bridge (CHB)-based battery storage systems. The primary objectives are to maintain high-quality power on the AC-side while balancing DC-side battery voltages under charging or discharging operations. The proposed algorithm is based on finite-set model predictive current control (FSMPC) technique which performs in-phase and phase voltage equalization in two complementary balancing terms by taking advantage of intrinsic voltage vector redundancy characteristic of three-phase CHB converters. Additionally, proposed modifications to the FSMPC provides lower demand on computational resources of the controller through offline re-ordering of vectors, and adjacent vectors introduction which also brings the least differential-mode dv/dt as an added value. Effects of battery voltage variation in charge/discharge cycles and voltage drop caused by non-ideal semiconductors are considered to ensure the most accurate performance during steady-state, transient, and common mode voltage reduced operation. The proposed approach is an efficient, easy-to-implement multi-parameter controller which handles all the tasks needless to any additional control loops. Simulations and experimental prototyping results, validate the feasibility of the battery voltage balancer terms to be utilized in battery storage applications with no downside impact on key power exchange functions.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021


  • battery Management Systems
  • Li-Ion battery
  • model predictive control
  • multilevel converter
  • H-bridge
  • voltage balancing


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