AIM: To evaluate the clinical, aesthetic and radiographical outcome of single immediate implant placement (IIP) after 10 years (a) and to identify putative risk factors for advanced mid-facial recession (b).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontally healthy patients with a thick gingival biotype and intact buccal bone wall were consecutively treated with a single immediate implant and crown in the aesthetic zone (15-25). Flapless surgery and socket grafting with deproteinized bovine bone mineral were performed. Seven patients received a connective tissue graft (CTG) at 3 months due to obvious alveolar process deficiency (n = 5) or advanced mid-facial recession (n = 2). Clinical, aesthetic and radiographical outcomes at 10 years were compared to those at 5 years and CBCTs were taken at 10 years.
RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (10 women; mean age 50) were consecutively treated and 18 could be re-examined. Two implants failed and two patients died. None of the parameters differed between the 5- and 10-year re-assessment (marginal bone loss: 0.31 mm; plaque score: 15%; probing depth: 3.4 mm; bleeding on probing: 32%; pink aesthetic score: 10.61; mesial papillary recession: -0.03 mm; distal papillary recession: 0.22 mm; mid-facial recession: 0.58 mm). Six implants (33%) demonstrated ≥1 mm mid-facial recession. Putative risk factors were merely based on descriptive statistics and included buccal shoulder position, no CTG, convex emergence profile and central incisor position. Three implants (17%) had no visible buccal bone on CBCT. One of these was too buccally positioned, another yielded peri-implant mucositis and another demonstrated peri-implantitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Advanced mid-facial recession is common in the long term following IIP. Therefore, caution is required for IIP in the aesthetic zone.