This review paper aims to provide the background and literature review of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS) called a lithium-ion capacitor (LiC). Since the LiC structure is formed based on the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LiB) and cathode of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), a short overview of LiBs and EDLCs is presented following the motivation of hybrid ESSs. Then, the used materials in LiC technology are elaborated. Later, a discussion regarding the current knowledge and recent development related to electro-thermal and lifetime modeling for the LiCs is given. As the performance and lifetime of LiCs highly depends on the operating temperature, heat transfer modeling and heat generation mechanisms of the LiC technology have been introduced, and the published papers considering the thermal management of LiCs have been listed and discussed. In the last section, the applications of LiCs have been elaborated.
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