Case presentation: We report for the first time a synchronous papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 12-year-old girl presenting with a large (5 cm diameter) left thyroid nodule, an increased left and right upper pole technetium tracer uptake at scintigraphy and hyperthyroidism. The uptake at the right lobe was explained by the crossing of the left nodule to the right site of the neck at Computed Tomography (CT) scanning.
Background: Although thyroid nodules are less common in children than in adults, there is more vigilance required in children because of the higher risk of malignancy. According to literature, about 5% of the thyroid nodules in adults are malignant versus 20-26% in children. The characteristics of 9 other pediatric cases with a differentiated thyroid carcinoma presenting with a toxic nodule, which have been reported during the last 20 years, are summarized. A nodular size of more than 3.5 cm and female predominance was a common finding.
Conclusions: The presence of hyperthyroidism in association with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule does not rule out thyroid cancer and warrants careful evaluation, even in the absence of cervical lymph node invasion.