An in-depth multiphasic analysis of the chocolate production chain, from bean to bar, demonstrates the superiority of Saccharomyces cerevisiae over Hanseniaspora opuntiae as functional starter culture during cocoa fermentation.

Cristian Diaz Munoz, Dario Van de Voorde, Emmy Tuenter, Valérie Lemarcq, Davy Van de Walle, José Pedro Soares Maio, Alejandra Mencía, Carlos Eduardo Hernandez, Andrea Comasio, Eleni Sioriki, Stefan Weckx, Luc Pieters, Koen Dewettinck, Luc De Vuyst

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7 Citaten (Scopus)
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Hanseniaspora opuntiae is a commonly found yeast species in naturally fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass, which needed in-depth investigation. The present study aimed at examining effects of the cocoa isolate H. opuntiae
IMDO 040108 as part of three different starter culture mixtures compared with spontaneous fermentation, regarding microbial community, substrate consumption, and metabolite production dynamics, including volatile organic compound (VOC) and phytochemical compositions, as well as compositions of the cocoa beans after fermentation, cocoa liquors, and chocolates. The inoculated H. opuntiae strain was unable to prevail over background yeasts present in the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass. It led to under-fermented cocoa beans after four days of fermentation, which was however reflected in higher levels of polyphenols. Cocoa fermentation processes inoculated with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enhanced flavour production during the fermentation and drying steps, which was reflected in richer and more reproducible aroma profiles of the cocoa liquors and
chocolates. Sensory analysis of the cocoa liquors and chocolates further demonstrated that S. cerevisiae led to more acidic notes compared to spontaneous fermentation, as a result of an advanced fermentation degree.
Finally, different VOC profiles were found in the cocoa beans throughout the whole chocolate production chain, depending on the fermentation process
Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer104115
Aantal pagina's24
TijdschriftFood Microbiology
Volume109
DOI's
StatusPublished - feb 2023

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Research Foundation Flanders ( SBO project REVICO , S004617N ) and the Research Council of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel ( projects SRP7 and IOF2442/3017 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

Copyright:
Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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