Risk assessments of various types of chemical compounds are carried out in the European Union (EU) foremost to comply with legislation and to support regulatory decision making with respect to their safety. Historically, risk assessment has relied heavily on animal experiments. However, the EU is committed to reduce animal experimentation and has implemented several legislative changes, which have triggered a paradigm shift towards human-relevant animal-free testing in the field of toxicology, in particular for risk assessment. For some specific endpoints, such as skin corrosion and irritation, validated alternatives are available whilst for other endpoints, including repeated dose systemic toxicity, the use of animal data is still central to meet the information requirements stipulated in the different legislations. The present review aims to provide an overview of established and more recently introduced methods for hazard assessment and risk characterisation for human health, in particular in the context of the EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No 1223/2009) as well as the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation (EC 1907/2006).
Originele taal-2English
TijdschriftCritical reviews in toxicology
StatusAccepted/In press - 2021


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