As the global economy begins to strain under the pressure of rising petroleum prices and environmental concerns, research has spurred into the development of various types of clean energy transportation systems such as hybrid electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Especially PHEVs acquire the most attention due to the combination of electric source and conventional engine. This type of vehicle provides the user a considerable pure electric range and also an extended range, which can be performed by a conventional internal combustion engine. The establishment of a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) that can support the output power during acceleration, efficiently use the regenerative energy, and perform for a considerable cycle life is the critical aspect to be met by battery technologies. During the last decade, a series of hybridization topologies have been proposed in order to enhance the power density and cycle life performances of energy storage systems. The combination of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) can result in an extension of the battery life and an increase in the energy efficiency and power capabilities.However, Omar et al. underlined that the association with EDLCs is still expensive due to the high cost price of the DC-DC converter. Cooper and Moseley8 proposed a new technology, called UltraBattery. This RESS technology combines in the same battery cell the advantages of the EDLC and lead-acid batteries by using an asymmetrical approach. However, this technology is still in developing process and its real performances are under investigation. Since 1990, nickel-based battery technology has been proposed and implemented in many applications as a RESS. The most known applications in this field are portable consumers, uninterruptable power supply, energy storage systems for telecom, distributed generation applications, public transport (e.g., battery-driven light rail vehicle: SWIMO), recapturing regenerative energy for railways, smoothing and storage of wind-solar power outputs, and hybrid and electric vehicles. The nickel-metal hydride batteries have been implemented in the electric vehicles (GM EV1 and Chevrolet S10) and hydride vehicles (Toyota Prius and Honda Civic). The Ragone plot is illustrated whereby the specific power versus specific energy is presented. As one can observe, the power and energy capabilities of nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium battery technologies are higher than lead-acid batteries. However, on the other hand, the performances are less pronounced against lithium-ion technology. Particularly, the energy density is considerably lower, which is a key aspect in BEVs.
|Titel||Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering|
|ISBN van geprinte versie||978-0-12-409547-2|
|Status||Published - 7 aug 2014|