Insomnia is a major problem in the chronic spinal pain (CSP) population and has a negative impact on health and well-being. While insomnia is commonly reported, underlying mechanisms explaining the relation between sleep and pain are still not fully understood. Additionally, no reviews regarding the prevention of insomnia and/or associated factors in people with CSP are currently available. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence of insomnia and associated factors in this population, we conducted a systematic review of the literature exploring associates for insomnia in people with CSP in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. Three independent reviewers extracted the data and performed the quality assessment. A meta-analysis was conducted for every potential associate presented in at least two studies. A total of 13 studies were found eligible, which together identified 25 different potential associates of insomnia in 24,817 people with CSP. Twelve studies had a cross-sectional design. Moderate-quality evidence showed a significantly higher rate for insomnia when one of the following factors was present: high pain intensity, anxiety and depression. Low-quality evidence showed increased odds for insomnia when one of the following factors was present: female sex, performing no professional activities and physical/musculoskeletal comorbidities. Higher healthcare use was also significantly related to the presence of insomnia. One study showed a strong association between high levels of pain catastrophizing and insomnia in people with chronic neck pain. Last, reduced odds for insomnia were found in physically active people with chronic low back pain compared to inactive people with chronic low back pain. This review provides an overview of the available literature regarding potential associates of insomnia in people with CSP. Several significant associates of insomnia were identified. These findings can be helpful to gain a better understanding of the characteristics and potential origin of insomnia in people witch CSP, to identify people with CSP who are (less) likely to have insomnia and to determine directions of future research in this area.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's22
TijdschriftJournal of Clinical Medicine
Nummer van het tijdschrift14
StatusPublished - 19 jul 2021


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